It explains the various filter effects available in CSS by applying them to the images. It also provides the sample code to apply cross-browser Blur, Grayscale, Sepia, Brightness, Contrast, Invert, Saturate, Hue Rotate filters to the images.

Apply CSS Filters To Images
Apply CSS Filters To Images
January 15, 2020

Applying filters to the images can drastically change them without any modification using the Image editing software. This tutorial explains using the CSS filters on the img tag which works on almost all the modern browsers. We can also apply these CSS filters to other elements where applicable.

Syntax

We can apply the CSS filters to an image using the filter property. The standard syntax to apply the CSS filter property is shown below.

/* Filter Property */
filter: <filter function>;

/* Multiple Filters */
filter: <filter function> <filter function>;

/* Clear Filters */
filter: none;

We can also animate the filters by applying the transitions. The same filter effects can be dynamically applied to an element using JavaScript as shown below.

// Filter using JavaScript
object
.style.WebkitFilter="<filter function>"

Cross-Browser Filters

The Edge (13.0) and Firefox (35.0) supports the default filter property. We can apply the filters on Chrome (53.0), Safari (9.1), and Opera (40.0) using the -webkit-filter property as shown below.

/* Filter Property */
filter: <filter function>;
-webkit-filter: <filter function>;

/* Multiple Filters */
filter: <filter function> <filter function>;
-webkit-filter: <filter function> <filter function>;

Blur

The Blur Filter in CSS applies the Gaussian Blur effect to the image. The length value in pixel, em, etc can be used to define the standard deviation to the Gaussian Blur function. The higher the value, the more is the blur. It can be used as shown below.

/* Syntax */
filter: blur( <length> );

/* Gaussian Blur */
.filter-blur {
filter: blur( 3px );
-webkit-filter: blur( 3px );
}

/* OR */

.filter-blur {
filter: blur( 0.1em );
-webkit-filter: blur( 0.1em );
}

The sample output of the Blur Filter is shown below.

Blur Filter

Blur Filter

Grayscale

The Grayscale Filter can be used to remove all the colors from the image by converting the image to grayscale. We can specify the value in either number or in percentage. The value from 0 to 1 or 0% to 100% can be used to specify the grayscale effect. The higher the value, the more is the grayscale effect. It can be used as shown below.

/* Syntax */
filter: grayscale( <value> );

/* Grayscale */
.filter-grayscale {
filter: grayscale( 50% );
-webkit-filter: grayscale( 50% );
}

/* OR */
.filter-grayscale {
filter: grayscale( 0.5 );
-webkit-filter: grayscale( 0.5 );
}

The sample output of the Grayscale Filter is shown below.

Grayscale Filter

Grayscale Filter

Sepia

The Sepia Filter can be used to convert the image to sepia. We can specify the value in either number or percentage. The higher the value, the more is the sepia effect. It can be used as shown below.

/* Syntax */
filter: sepia( <value> );

/* Sepia */
.filter-sepia {
filter: sepia( 50% );
-webkit-filter: sepia( 50% );
}

/* OR */
.filter-sepia {
filter: sepia( 0.5 );
-webkit-filter: sepia( 0.5 );
}

The sample output of the Sepia Filter is shown below.

Sepia Filter

Sepia Filter

Brightness

The Brightness Filter can be used to control the image brightness. We can specify the value in either number or percentage. The value from 0 to 1 or 0% to 100% can be used to reduce the brightness and more than 1 or 100% to increase the brightness. The higher the value, the more is the brightness in the image. It can be used as shown below.

/* Syntax */
filter: brightness( <value> );

/* Brightness */
.filter-brightness {
filter: brightness( 150% );
-webkit-filter: brightness( 150% );
}

/* OR */
.filter-brightness {
filter: brightness( 1.5 );
-webkit-filter: brightness( 1.5 );
}

The sample output of the Brightness Filter is shown below.

Brightness Filter

Brightness Filter

Contrast

The Contrast Filter can be used to control the image contrast. We can specify the value in either number or percentage. The value from 0 (black) to 1 (unchanged) or 0% to 100% can be used to reduce the contrast and more than 1 or 100% to increase the contrast. The higher the value, the more is the contrast in the image. It can be used as shown below.

/* Syntax */
filter: contrast( <value> );

/* Contrast */
.filter-contrast {
filter: contrast( 150% );
-webkit-filter: contrast( 150% );
}

/* OR */
.filter-contrast {
filter: contrast( 1.5 );
-webkit-filter: contrast( 1.5 );
}

The sample output of the Contrast Filter is shown below.

Contrast Filter

Contrast Filter

Invert

The Invert Filter can be used to invert the samples in the image. We can specify the value in either number or percentage. The value from 0 (unchanged) to 1 (completely inverted) or 0% to 100% can be used. It can be used as shown below.

/* Syntax */
filter: invert( <value> );

/* Invert */
.filter-invert {
filter: invert( 90% );
-webkit-filter: invert( 90% );
}

/* OR */
.filter-invert {
filter: invert( 0.9 );
-webkit-filter: invert( 0.9 );
}

The sample output of the Invert Filter is shown below.

Invert Filter

Invert Filter

Saturate

The Saturate Filter can be used to saturate the image. We can specify the value in either number or percentage. The value from 0 (completely un-saturated) to 1 (unchanged) or 0% to 100% can be used. It can be used as shown below.

/* Syntax */
filter: saturate( <value> );

/* Saturate */
.filter-saturate {
filter: saturate( 50% );
-webkit-filter: saturate( 50% );
}

/* OR */
.filter-saturate {
filter: saturate( 0.5 );
-webkit-filter: saturate( 0.5 );
}

The sample output of the Saturate Filter is shown below.

Saturate Filter

Saturate Filter

Hue Rotate

The Hue Rotate Filter can be used to apply hue rotation on the image. We can specify the value in angle from 0deg to 360deg. The image samples will be adjusted according to the number of degrees around the color circle. It can be used as shown below.

/* Syntax */
filter: hue-rotate( <value> );

/* Hue Rotate */
.filter-hue-rotate {
filter: hue-rotate( 180deg );
-webkit-filter: hue-rotate( 180deg );
}

The sample output of the Hue Rotate Filter is shown below.

Hue Rotate Filter

Hue Rotate Filter

Multiple Filters

We can also apply multiple filters at the same time. The filters will be applied according to the function position as shown below.

/* Saturate & Blur */
.filter-saturate-blur {
filter: saturate( 50% ) blur( 3px );
-webkit-filter: saturate( 50% ) blur( 3px );
}

CodePen

Summary

This tutorial explained using the filters available in CSS by applying them to the images using the img tag.

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